Appealing Insurance Denials

Suggestions and advice to help guide you through the insurance denial appeal process.

Suggestions and advice to help guide you through the insurance denial appeal process.

The content on this page is provided by the Patient Advocate Foundation — a national nonprofit organization that serves as an active liaison between the patient and their insurer, employer and/or creditors to resolve insurance, job discrimination and/or debt crisis matters relative to their diagnosis through case managers, doctors and attorneys.

The Patient Advocate Foundation seeks to safeguard patients through effective mediation assuring access to care, maintenance of employment and preservation of their financial stability.

Learn more about the Patient Advocate Foundation here.

Step 1: Introduction

Dealing with an injury or illness is stressful for patients and their families. When you or a loved one are denied a medical treatment that has been performed or requested to be performed by your treating physician, it can cause a crisis situation. Since each insurance policy is different, it would be impossible to write a failproof plan that would work for each patient in all situations ⁠— each patient and each situation is unique. This web page is designed to help patients and their loved ones navigate the appeal process. It contains suggestions and advice. It should not be interpreted as a substitute for legal counsel.

It is also important to point out that support from your treating physician and specialist is critical. Your physician is the professional trained to assess and recommend a treatment plan for you.

Simply stated, a denial means that the insurance company has decided not to pay for the treatment that your doctor has recommended. The treatment may have already been performed or may be scheduled in the near future. If the denied treatment has not yet been performed, the insurer may be denying the request for pre-authorization. Pre-authorization means that the insurer has given approval for a member to receive a treatment, test or surgical treatment before it has actually occurred.

The goal of the appeal process is to allow the patient to be heard and provide any and all necessary information to convince the insurance company to change their decision and provide coverage for the procedure.

This web page is also designed to provide a logical approach to the appeal process. When submitting your appeal, keep in mind that the best defense is a good offense. In other words, it is generally better to take the time to gather all the necessary information and submit a well-thought-out appeal packet than to quietly submit a response and miss the opportunity to educate the insurance company about your specific situation.

Step 2: Gather preliminary information

If you do not already have a file and a notebook to document all correspondence, we recommend that you start one now. You should keep a record of all letters you receive and a log of all telephone calls you make or receive related to the denial. Over time you may forget people's names and dates. This documentation will help you stay organized and focused on your goal.

There are specific questions you need to ask once you are notified the treatment will not be covered through pre-authorization, including the following:

When did you receive notice of the denial and how?

Most important, you will need to get a copy of the denial letter. Under the Employee Retirement and Income Security Act (ERISA), your denial letter should include a specific reason for the denial and a reference to your plan explaining the basis for the denial. For example, is your insurance company denying to pay for your treatment because it considers it to be experimental? Or, do you belong to an HMO that does not have out-of-network benefits and you wish to go to an out-of-network provider? Place a call to your doctor's office and find out what information was submitted to the insurance company, and ask for a copy of the information and the letter written by your doctor requesting payment authorization.

If your requests are ignored, you should put them in writing to make a record of your attempts to obtain the information you need. If you have received a denial for a treatment that has already taken place and there are unpaid bills, you need to begin to backtrack to find out why.

Does your insurance company require procedures to be pre-authorized?

This brings up the most important documents you have and need: your plan document and plan summary, or health insurance booklets. The plan document and plan summary are essentially a contract between you and the insurance company. You need to be sure that you have a current copy. If you do not have a copy, you must write to the plan administrator and request that a copy be sent to you. Under ERISA, these documents must be sent to you within 30 days of the written request or the company may be assessed penalties. Make sure to read your plan in simple language. What does it say about your treatment and specific reason for denial? Under ERISA, a specific reason for denial must be stated in language that would be understandable to an employee. If the treatment was to be pre-authorized, do you or your doctor have a copy of the authorization or the approval from the insurance company? If no pre-authorization was required, review specific exclusions listed in your plan. If your treatment is not identified as a specific exclusion, you need to begin your appeal.

Who can you contact to discuss the denial?

You need specific names and numbers of contact people. The denial letter from the insurance company may contain this information. You may need to call the insurance company and ask for a contact person. Be sure to ask for that person's direct line. Ask the staff at your doctor's office who you can call to ask questions and get any letters or records you may need. If you will be receiving your treatment at a facility away from home, be sure to have the name and number of your treating doctor's nurse. You will likely need to get letters from the treating doctor, as well. You also need to be sure that you have a written copy of the steps that you must take in order to appeal the denial. This information should be in your plan document. It may also be in the denial letter. You may need to request this information from the insurance company. Be sure you understand each step of the appeal process; it is your path to obtaining reimbursement.

By answering these questions and collecting these documents, you have the initial information you need. You have your plan document, your denial letter and the names of the contact people at the insurance company and your doctor's office. Now you must begin to educate yourself and continue to research the issue to achieve your goal of reimbursement. If you still do not understand your rights, or the appeal process is unclear, and the employer or insurer will not or cannot explain further, it may be helpful to contact an attorney. (See 'When to Consult an Attorney')

Step 3: Understand the illness and the insurance

You need to understand your condition or your loved one's condition before you can discuss the case with the insurance company. It is very important that you understand exactly what the doctor wants to do and why it is necessary. Read any copies of the letters your doctor may have submitted to the insurance company. The initial letter typically discusses the patient's case in simple medical terms and then explains what the doctor proposes to do. This letter is often referred to as the treatment plan or plan of care. You can also ask your doctor or nurse to explain it further. Often they have written material that may be helpful, or they may be able to direct you in finding more information.

You also need to be familiar with the type of insurance you have. If your insurance is through your employer or your spouse's employer, call the benefits manager and ask them to explain the coverage. For example, is the employer self-insured and does the employer contract with a third party to administer the plan? Or does the employer contract with an outside company to administer the plan and pay the claims? It makes a difference, because you may be able to get your denial overturned by working with the benefits manager or the designated Human Resources representative. If the company is not self-insured, explaining the problem to the benefits manager — both verbally and in writing — may be very beneficial. The benefits manager can, in some situations, put enough pressure on the insurance company to get the denial overturned. Also, if the employer has had problems with the insurer, they may choose not to renew the contract with that insurance company.

Step 4: Write the appeal letters

After you have gathered the preliminary information and have a basic understanding of the illness and treatment plan, as well as the insurance policy, you are ready to start the appeal process. Some appeals are handled by the doctor's office, clinic or hospital. In this situation, the patient is usually put in contact with a case manager who has experience in the appeals process. In this case, the patient should understand the steps in the process and should oversee what is being done. It is suggested that the patient request copies of all letters and correspondence to and from the insurer. The patient should also be in close contact with the case manager or person handling the appeal for them.

In other situations, the patient and family are informed of the denial and must handle the appeal on their own. If this is the case, you must manage your appeal. Your appeal should include the following:

  • An appeal letter
  • A letter from your doctor and specialist addressing specifics of your case
  • Any pertinent information from your medical records
  • Any articles from peer-reviewed clinical journals that support your case by illustrating that the treatment is medically effective

Your appeal letter

The purpose of the appeal letter is to tell the insurance company that you disagree with their decision and why you believe they should cover the procedure. The letter should be factual and written in a firm but pleasant tone. When writing your appeal letter you should include the following:

  • Your identification. This includes your name, policy number, group number, claim number or other information used to identify your case.
  • The reason for the denial. This should be explained in the denial letter.
  • A brief history of the illness and necessary treatment. Typically this information will be included in the doctor's letter in detail. But it can also be helpful to add a shorter and less complicated version in the patient's letter.
  • The correct information. If you believe the decision was made because of an error, state the correct information. Is the denied treatment different from the requested procedure? Or, maybe a coding error was made and the insurance company believes you will be receiving a different drug.
  • Why you believe the decision was wrong. Specific information based on facts to show that the treatment should be provided. For instance, you may have to go out-of-network for a treatment because the treatment is medically necessary according to your doctor and there is no in-network provider for the treatment.
  • What you are asking the insurance company to do. Typically you are asking that the insurer reconsider the denial and approve coverage for the treatment in a timely manner.

Sample appeal letters

The sample appeal letters included in this guide are designed to be a general guide for your specific letter. Sample appeal letter "A" was written as though to your insurance company if you had treatment and it was subsequently denied. Sample appeal letter "B" addresses when your health insurance company has denied a test, medication or service before you've had it.

Each patient and each denial are unique. It is recommended that you read each letter and then identify other important details that need to be added to your letter. You must also remain factual. It is very important that your denial letter be focused on the intended outcome.

Your doctor's appeal letter

You should also ask your doctor and your specialist to write a letter discussing your specific case and why your treatment is medically necessary. The letter should be addressed to the person at the insurance company that sent you the denial letter or directly to the medical director at the insurance company. It should include the following:

  • Any information about your illness that your doctor feels is clinically important
  • The prescribed treatment plan
  • Why the treatment is medically necessary
  • Physician's sample appeal letter

Medical Records

Ask your doctor and specialist if there are any documents in your medical records that may be helpful in your appeal. For example, it may be helpful to send a pathology result documenting the specific cell type. In the case of certain cancers, the insurance company may need to see what chemotherapy drugs you have already received. In some cases, the insurance company may ask to see specific documents from your medical records.

To request your medical records at Rush, or a loved one's records, visit here.

Articles from peer-reviewed clinical journals

Often an insurance company will deny a treatment because they believe there is not enough evidence that the treatment is helpful for a specific disease. If you and your doctor believe this is the basis for your denial, you need to submit documentation that the treatment is effective. This documentation should be in the form of articles that come from the professional journals or magazines that doctors use to keep up-to-date on the latest treatments.

These journals have editorial boards of physicians who specialize in specific areas of medicine. That is what makes a journal peer-reviewed. This type of documentation has become very popular with the insurance companies, and it is very common for them to request this type of documentation. Your physician and specialist have probably had such a request for information in the past, and they can assist you in obtaining these articles.

These four pieces of information should be put together in a packet and submitted to the insurance company by registered mail or another trackable mail service so you will be able to find out who signed for the information. This will alleviate the excuse that the information was never received. You should keep a duplicate copy of all the information you are submitting and add it to your file. You may wish to call to confirm receipt of your materials.

After the denial has been received and your appeal has been submitted, the next thing to do is wait for a response. Waiting can be the hardest part. Your plan probably gives a length of time that the insurance company has to respond to your appeal. If it does not, you need to ask the benefits manager or the insurance company when you will be notified of the response. If you are unable to get a response, you may want to consider legal counsel.

Sample Appeal Letters

The physician's sample appeal letter is also a general guide for a specific letter. Most physicians have written appeal letters many times. Some physicians are far removed from the appeal process and are unsure of the specifics of your denial. They may also be unsure of the amount of information necessary. It is important that you communicate the specific reason for the denial to your treating physician and ask that they write their appeal letter with enough information to address the denial specifically.

Step 5: Evaluate the result

If you receive a phone call or a letter informing you that your denial has been overturned and the insurance company will cover the procedure, congratulations! However, before you celebrate, you need to request a copy of the approval letter. You also need to be sure that you are aware of any conditions that are included. For example, you may get an approval to have the surgical treatment your doctor recommends, but the insurance company may only cover it if it's performed by one of the doctors in their plan that you have never seen. If the conditions are unreasonable and unacceptable to you, discuss them with your doctor and insurance contact person. You may consider continuing with the appeal process. Most plans have several levels of appeal.

If your appeal has been denied, you also need a copy of the second denial letter. Like your original denial letter, this letter must also contain the specific reason for denial. Make sure to read the letter carefully. It may have a different reason for the denial. For example, the original denial letter states that a bone marrow transplant was denied because it was not effective for the disease, and was to be performed out-of-network. You submitted your appeal and all the appropriate documentation. The second denial letter rejects the treatment because there was not enough evidence provided to show that the transplant is medically necessary. These are very different reasons for denying the same procedure.

Typically, the second level of appeal will be reviewed by a different group of people at the insurance company. Usually, your second denial letter will explain the reason for denial and may even ask that you submit specific information that was not received with your first appeal letter. Be sure to notify your doctor of the decision and the new information that is needed. This denial letter may instruct that if you are interested in appealing further, you send your letter and new information to a different person. If you decide to continue with the appeal process, you should submit another appeal packet with new information specifically addressing the current reason for denial. Again, keep copies of all information, send the packet via trackable mail service and return the receipt that is requested. If your appeal is again denied, you should request the third denial in writing and notify your doctor. If you believe your insurance company should cover the treatment and are willing to proceed with the appeal process, you should refer to your plan document for the next step.

At this point, some insurance companies will offer you what they call an external review, which means that the insurance company will send your appeal to a company that they contract with to review the denial, the appeal and any new information, and make a recommendation to the insurance company about the treatment in question. The external review board is typically made up of nurses, attorneys and doctors who specialize in the specific treatment you are asking the insurance company to cover. In some states the law allows the patient to request that your case be sent for an external review. To date, the following states have external review boards:

  • Arizona
  • California
  • Connecticut
  • Florida
  • Hawaii
  • Illinois
  • Maryland
  • Minnesota
  • Missouri
  • New Jersey
  • New Mexico
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode Island
  • Vermont
  • Tennessee
  • Texas

If you live in a state who has an external review board, you can contact the state department of insurance for further information.

While external review can be very beneficial, it is important to understand that there are limitations. The external review company can act only within specific parameters. They cannot override your policy. They can make decisions based on your policy guidelines. For example, you need to have surgery and want an out-of-network doctor, miles from your town, to perform the surgery, but you have a policy with no out-of-network benefits. Your insurance company agrees that you need the surgery and has an in-network surgeon in your town. If the surgeon in your town is in-network and is qualified to perform the surgery, the external review board would probably not be helpful because of the nature of your request. However, if you and your surgeon believe that the surgeon in your town is not qualified to perform the surgery for a specific reason and you can support this with the necessary documentation, the external review board may be able to substantiate your claim. That may result in the insurance company overturning your denial.

At this point, if you have exhausted all the levels of appeal and are not satisfied with the decision, your remaining alternative may be to pursue the issue in court.

Important phone numbers

If you have additional questions regarding appealing your insurance denials or you are in need of certain documents for your appeals, there are variety of state and federal agencies and departments that can assist.

Who to call If you have questions about... Phone number

Social Security Administration (SSA)

  • Lost Medicare card
  • Address change
  • Social Security benefits
  • Medicare enrollment
  • Medicare premium amounts

(800) 772-1213

State Health Insurance Advisory Program

  • Medicare bills
  • Information on Supplemental Insurance Policies and long-term care insurance
  • Payment denials and appeals
  • Medicare rights and protections
  • Treatment complaints and help choosing a Medicare health plan

(800) 548-9034

Medicare Carrier

  • Part B coverage and bills
  • Medical services, and recognizing fraud and abuse

(800) 633-4227

Fiscal Intermediary (FI)

  • Part A coverage and bills
  • Hospital care and skilled nursing care

(800) 633-4227

Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) Regional Office

  • Local seminars and health fairs on your new Medicare health plan choices

(312) 353-7180

Medicare Hotline

  • Ordering other Medicare publications

(800) 633-4227

Medicare MSA Information Line

  • Medicare Medical Savings Accounts

(800) 633-4227

Office of the Inspector General

  • How to report Medicare fraud and abuse

(800) 447-8477

State Insurance Department

  • Medicare Supplemental Insurance Policies available in your area

(217) 782-4515

State Medical Assistance Office

  • Medicaid and low-income assistance

(800) 252-8635