Colorectal Cancer Screening

Learn about risk factors for colorectal cancer — and the importance of routine screening
ColoRectal Screening

If you're not up to speed on colorectal cancer, its risk factors and the importance of screening, grab a bowl of high-fiber cereal and take a few moments to read up on the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States.

The good news is that colorectal cancer can be caught early; in fact, in many instances, doctors can stop this disease before it even starts. The key to identifying precancerous polyps and early detection of colorectal cancer: screening.

"A colonoscopy is not only a screening tool for colon cancer but can also prevent the development of colon cancer down the road," says Maham Lodhi, MD, a gastroenterologist at Rush.

If you have a family history of colorectal cancer and polyps, you are at higher risk of experiencing the disease. The closer the relative is to you genetically, the more vigilant you should be with your screenings. Those with family history may need to be screened earlier than age 45 and more frequently.

Delaying your screening can make the need for surgery more likely. Also, delaying can reduce the chances for a cure. There can be a better than 90% chance for a cure if the cancer is caught early.

"The tragedy of dying from colon cancer is that people don’t have to," says Salina Lee, MD, gastroenterologist at Rush. "We know how to find it, treat it, cure it. We just have to find it early."

Screening approaches

There are a number of screening methods for colorectal cancer, from the simple stool-based test to the more involved, gold standard, colonoscopy. Once 45, a person at average risk (no family or personal history of the disease and no symptoms) should start routine colorectal cancer screening.

There are two widely used, stool-based tests. The FIT test checks stool samples for microscopic evidence of blood. This test, which is done yearly, has been shown to reduce cancer deaths by catching the cancer at an earlier and more easily treated stage.

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A colonoscopy allows the doctor to directly examine the entire colon. Abnormal growths (or polyps) can also be detected and removed during this procedure. The polyps are then tested to see whether or not they are precancerous and if more frequent surveillance is recommended. The American Cancer Society recommends a colonoscopy once every 10 years for people 45 and older.

Beyond family history

While family history certainly puts you at higher risk for colorectal cancer, most colorectal cancer occurs in people with no family history of the disease. Other risk factors include the following:

  • Age (more than 90% of cases occur in people who are 45 years of age or older)
  • Having experienced inflammatory bowel disease (like ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease)
  • Smoking
  • Too much animal fat in your diet, especially from red meat
  • Not enough fiber in your diet
  • Lack of regular physical activity

Delaying your screening can make the need for surgery more likely ... and reduce the chances for a cure. There can be a better than 90% chance for a cure if the cancer is found early.

To help prevent colorectal cancer, experts recommend the following:

  • Get screened regularly
  • Exercise regularly and maintain a healthy weight
  • Eat a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and other high-fiber foods
  • Don't smoke or drink excessively

So even though you can't choose the members of your family tree, you can take charge of your colon health by making smart choices.

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