Diabetes occurs when you lack the hormone insulin or when your insulin is not able to work effectively to move blood sugar (blood glucose) to the body’s cells. That causes glucose to rise to abnormally high levels in your blood, which can cause damage to many organs.
Types of diabetes
Type 1 diabetes
Also called juvenile diabetes, type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease where your body destroys cells that make insulin. If you have type 1 diabetes, you must take insulin injections in order to live.
Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. It starts when the body does not use insulin properly. Over time, your body cannot produce enough insulin to function properly. As a result, glucose builds up in the blood and can damage many organs.
Gestational diabetes is type 2 diabetes that only develops during pregnancy and goes away after the baby is born. Women who develop gestational diabetes are at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.
Some people with diabetes do not have symptoms. But others may experience the following:
- Excessive thirst
- Excessive hunger
- Unusual weight loss
- Slow-healing sores
- Foot pain or numbness
- Blurry eyesight
Just because you have these symptoms does not mean you have diabetes — other conditions can cause similar problems.
Having a high blood sugar level can cause serious health problems and may contribute to complications such as the following:
- Kidney disease
- Nerve damage (diabetic neuropathy)
- Eye disease (diabetic retinopathy)
- Heart disease
- Loss of feet or legs
How can I get help for diabetes?
If you have diabetes symptoms, make an appointment to see your primary care doctor. A blood test can determine if you have diabetes.
You may also call for an appointment at the Rush University Diabetes Center. At the center, you can receive education and treatment from a specialized team of physicians, nurses and dietitians.
If you are overweight and not physically active, you are at higher risk for diabetes. You are also at higher risk if you have family members with diabetes. Regular checkups are important so that your doctor can check for early signs of the disease. You can then start treatment to help prevent the development of serious health problems.
Care for diabetes at Rush
Blood sugar monitoring
Your care team will teach you how to check your blood sugar level and how to respond when your levels are too low or high:
- Type 1 diabetes: You need regular insulin shots.
- Type 2 diabetes: Oral tablets are often effective but you may eventually also need insulin.
Healthy eating and physical activity are also crucial to managing your diabetes. A diabetes diet is a healthy-eating plan that will help you control your blood sugar. Your doctor may suggest that you see a dietitian to learn how to make healthy food choices.
You can prevent complications from type 1 and type 2 diabetes by seeing your doctor for regular appointments. It is very important to monitor the following:
- Blood glucose
- Blood pressure
- LDL (the "bad" cholesterol)
- Your kidney function
- Your eyesight
Psychologists at Rush offer psychotherapy services tailored for people with diabetes. These services are designed to help with the following:
- Behavioral, mental or emotional challenges that can make it difficult to stick with diabetes treatment
- Lifestyle changes for weight management
- Stress management
- Mood or anxiety concerns
Why choose Rush for diabetes care
- The Rush University Diabetes Center was awarded the American Diabetes Association Education Recognition Certificate — showing that Rush provides the quality education and care needed to help you manage your diabetes.
- Rush has a dedicated program for children and adolescents with diabetes and their families. Services include ongoing educational programs based on current guidelines of the American Diabetes Association.
- Doctors at Rush specialize in managing diabetes in the hospital setting. Because illness or surgery can affect your blood sugar levels, most inpatients with diabetes at Rush will have their blood sugar level monitored and treated by an endocrinology team member 24 hours a day.
- If you require a pancreas or kidney transplant as a result of your diabetes, the transplant programs at Rush offer many options and support services before and after transplantation.