Excellence is just the beginning.


French German Italian Portuguese Russian


Anemia occurs when you have a low number of healthy red blood cells, which provide oxygen to your body. Oxygen is carried inside the red cell by a protein called hemoglobin. Without enough oxygen, your organs and tissues can become damaged.

Anemia: what you should know

Anemia causes

Certain health conditions lead to the three main causes of anemia:

  • Blood loss
  • Lack of red blood cell production
  • Red blood cell destruction

Anemia types

Determining the cause of your anemia guides your doctor in choosing the appropriate treatment. The following are anemias commonly treated at Rush:

  • Aplastic anemia: Your bone marrow does not make enough new blood cells
  • Hemolytic anemia: Red blood cells are destroyed prematurely
  • Iron-deficiency anemia (the most common type): You do not have enough iron in your body to make hemoglobin, either because you are not eating enough iron-rich foods, your body is not absorbing enough iron, or you are losing blood
  • Sickle cell anemia: A genetic disorder in which the body makes abnormal hemoglobin, resulting in sickle-shaped red blood cells that can block blood flow
  • Pernicious anemia: Your body lacks a certain key nutrient, usually vitamin B12.
  • Refractory anemia: Your bone marrow is unable to make red blood cells, even though it has all the necessary nutrients and vitamins
  • Thalassemias: A group of inherited blood disorders where the body does not make enough red blood cells or hemoglobin

Anemia symptoms

Anemia has several classic symptoms:

How can I get help for anemia?

See your primary care doctor if you have anemia symptoms. Your doctor will order blood tests, such as a complete blood count (CBC). 

If you have anemia, your doctor may order more tests to determine the cause of your anemia. You may need to see a hematologist, a doctor who specializes in blood disorders.